Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Violation Of Human Rights Vs. The Book Night Throughout history we have studied and learned about different people and places that have gone through serious hardships. Some people wrote books about their terrible experience. However, others we have just read about in newspaper articles, seen in movies or even studied in a school textbooks. The book Night is about a Hungarian Jewish teenager who is captured by the Nazi's along with his father and many other Jews. They are being tortured in many ways such as being beaten,stripped, shaved, starved and also having to do slave work. They were being treated as if they were not human. As a matter of fact to the Nazi's they weren't human, they were practically garbage and it did not matter what had happened to them. The Nazi's had turned them into different people. It was as if they did not have family members because they only cared about personal survival. Also I think that it took the faith that the Jews had away from them which left them no other choice but to be hopeless. Since the Holocaust took place there were other incidents that has occured in other countries where human rights were violated. In Libya people have been treated cruely and have had no rights for years. Libya has not had fair human rights since 1984. Recently in June of 1997, the head of the state decided on punished people if the head of the state was not informed of family members. The things that are taking place are violating the International Human Rights treaties. There were reports on people being tortured executed or even supposedly disappearing. In Libya they are treated as if they are not human and they have to obey absurd rules that have nothing to do with keeping a country in order. Keeping a country or state in order should be the main idea not torturing everyone. I think that what is happening in Libya and the Holocaust are almost exactly alike. The Holocaust was all about concentration camps and ways of torture and thats exactly how the people of Libya are being treated. The people of Libya are not being treated like humans and are not being respected the way every person deserves to be. The Holocaust I feel was about discrimination because the Nazi's did not like the Jews and they were persecuting them because they were Jewish and that is wrong. Both situations are wrong because they take the faith and hope out of the people and the people feel as if they are inhuman and it is horrible to hear about that happening because no one deserves such cruelty. I think the reason as to why these things occur is because after the Holocaust had taken place people heard about it and got ideas. They think having power is everything. Power isn't all that great when you are taking the life out of everyone. This book and reading about Libya should be an example for everyone to learn : Hurting, killing and treating people cruely is not something that gives you power it makes you a horrible person. Book Reports
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Definition and Examples of Synchronic Linguistics Synchronic linguistics is the study of a language at one particular period (usually the present). It is also known asÃ descriptive linguistics or general linguistics. Key Takeaways: Synchronistic Linguistics Synchronistic linguistics is the study of a language at a particular time.In contrast, diachronic linguistics studies the development of a language over time.Synchronistic linguistics is often descriptive, analyzing how the parts of a language or grammar work together. For example: AÃ synchronicÃ study of language is a comparison of languages orÃ dialects- various spoken differences of the same language- used within some defined spatial region and during the same period of time, wrote Colleen Elaine Donnelly in Linguistics for Writers. Determining the regions of the United States in which people currently say pop rather than soda and idea rather than idear are examples of the types of inquiries pertinent to a synchronic study.State University of New York Press, 1994 Synchronistic views look at a language as if its static and not changing. Languages continually evolve, though its slow enough that people dont notice it much while its happening. The term was coined by Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. That for which he is now most known was just a portion of his contributions to academia; his specialty was the analysis of Indo-European languages, and his work generally studied languages over time, or diachronic (historical) linguistics. Synchronic vs. Diachronic Approaches Synchronic linguistics is one of the two main temporal dimensions of language study introduced by Saussure in hisÃ Course in General Linguistics (1916). The other is diachronic linguistics, which is the study of language through periods of time in history. The first looks at a snapshot of a language, and the other studies its evolution (like a frame of film vs. a movie). For example, analyzing the word order in a sentence in Old English only would be a study in synchronistic linguistics. If you looked at how word order changed in a sentence from Old English to Middle English and now to modern English, that would be a diachronic study. Say you need to analyze how historical events affected a language. If you look at when the Normans conquered England in 1066 and brought with them a lot of new words to be injected into English, a diachronic look could analyze what new words were adopted, which ones fell out of use, and how long that process took for select words. A synchronic study might look at the language at different points before the Normans or after. Note how you need a longer time period for the diachronic study than the synchronic one. Consider this example: When people had more opportunities to change their social class in the 1600s, they started using the words thee and thou less often. If they didnt know the social class of the person they were addressing, theyd use the formal pronoun you to be safely polite, leading to the demise of thee and thou in English. This would be a diachronic look. A description of the words and how they were used at the time in comparison to the pronoun you would be a synchronic description. Before Saussure, it was considered that the only true scientific study of a language could be diachronic, but both approaches are useful. In the third edition of Synchronic English Linguistics: An Introduction, the authors explain the types of historical linguistics:Ã As it is necessary to know how a system works at any given time before one can hope to understand changes, the analysis of language at a single point in time, i.e. synchronic linguistics, now usually precedes the study in terms of diachronic linguistics. (Paul Georg Meyer et al.,Ã Gunter Nar Verlag, 2005) Synchronic studies look at what associates with what (how parts interact) at any given time. Diachronic studies look at what causes what and how things change over time. Examples of Synchronic Study Synchronic linguistics is descriptive linguistics, such as the study of how parts of a language (morphs or morphemes) combine to form words and phrases and how proper syntax gives a sentence meaning. In the 20th century the search for a universal grammar, that which is instinctive in humans and gives them the ability to pick up their native language as an infant, is a synchronic area of study. Studies of dead languages can be synchronic, as by definition they are no longer spoken (no native or fluent speakers) nor evolving and are frozen in time.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Question Discussion Example Question Discussion Ã¢â¬â Article Example Question Discussion Implementing change in an organization may be difficult. The formulation and implementation process may be riddled with challenges, but with an effective approach, implementing changes should be easy and would be for the good of the organization. In a past job, changes had to be implemented to allow for the extension of the food outlet. These changes may have impacted some people in a negative way, which meant that some people would get shortchanged by the coming developments. The changes took place successfully as the food outlet opened up few branches while cutting back on its staff in some outlets. One of the things to remember when implementing change would be to establish clear objectives and goals. In doing so, there would clear cut intentions of what the change is aimed at achieving. Goals that are measurable can assist in measuring the progress made, thus; increasing the rate of success (Jones and Recardo 58).Also, letting the purpose of the changes determ ine the methods for implementing change could also work in my favor. What this means is that, the main reason for implementing the changes must take precedence in order to find out which methods are required to attain the desired results. In doing so, people who are affected might see the end result so that they are not disgruntled in the end. Lastly, identifying and using the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths to my advantage would work in implementing change successfully. Skills, previous knowledge and experience are just examples of organizational strengths that one can exhibit while implementing change. They may guide in determining what is good for the organization, based on past experiences and specific skill-set (Jones and Recardo 67). Work CitedJones, David J., and Recardo, J. Ronald. Leading and Implementing Business Change Management: Making Change Stick in the Contemporary Organization. New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Trendsetters shops - Assignment Example The small and medium enterprises are the enterprises which play a very important role in the global economy and constitute 90% of the global economy. Because of the saturity in the developed countries the Small and medium sized enterprises are making more advancements in the developing nations which are mainly the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China). The WTO has recognized the importance of these small scale industries and thus has promoted these industries. The small and medium enterprises are the enterprises which begin with their own innovations and inventions and survive competition in order to succeed globally. This report is a personal report and in this topic I will focus mainly on the development of our own small medium enterprise called the Ã¢â¬Å"TrendsettersÃ¢â¬ in which I and my brother are partners and it is a family business. I have been into this business as soon as I completed my higher secondary exams. I began my role in the firm as accountant. This t opic and firm has been chosen by me for my research purpose as I have personalized experience in the firm and I foresee my future in this firm. Beginning of as an accountant in the business I have started managing all the aspects of the business in order to carry our family legacy further. I and my brother have started discussions concerning all details about the shop like the supply chain procedures that we need to adopt, the pricing and the marketing strategies that needs to be implemented, the seasonal highs and lows etc. Ã¢â¬Å"SMEs enhance competition and entrepreneurship and hence have external benefits on economy wide efficiency, innovation, and aggregate productivity growth. SMEs are generally more productive than large firms. SME expansion boosts employment more than large firm growth because SME are more labor intensiveÃ¢â¬ (Small and Medium Enterprises, 2011, P.1). This research will shed light on Ã¢â¬Å"TrendsettersÃ¢â¬ as case study and example of successful small business in India. This research relies on the case study methodology, whereby personal description is provided which calls for analytical as well as descriptive study and provides accurate information on the actual developments in the research topic. 2. History of Trendsetters Shop: My Grandmother was the brain from where such an idea of family business emerged. She was a great textile designer and she could make her own designs which of course she did not market but created for her own family uses. Due to her talent people came to her for design tips on their clothes. My father grew up hearing this that many people wanted my grandmother to start her own small business but my grandmother was afraid because of the knits and guts that is required in the business field. My father had then acquired his business administration degree and instead of venturing out and sourcing him to other firms he decided with grandmother to start his own business so that his academic excellence and my grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas of design could merge together and they started a small garment factory. There was difficulty in procurement of initial capital and the initial capital was a loan with 10% interest from the Regional Rural Bank in our locality. With 5 of my grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s friends our businessÃ¢â¬â¢s first contract began. It was a very small contract but it ensured confidence in my father to further the business. My father became the managing director of the firm. The present number of employees in the firm is 75 which consist of designers, purchase officials, logistics officials and marketing officials. Comments: Even though the enterprise is a small scale it shows the merger of business idea with high academic excellence. It is notable how the family merged skills with education in order to start their own business. Ã¢â¬Å"Another area in which small entrepreneur has faced the difficulty is that of management. The principles of management have not been properly stu died and translated into practice owing to the influence of old traditions and customs. It has seldom bothered to
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Differentiating Instruction - Assignment Example clude simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed. Incorporating use of different tools like paper and pencil, the equipment like the computer, visuals, posters, oral demonstrations or digital photographs. Different apparatuses permit students to stage varied interests and talents such as photography, It is also crucial to get to know your students casually. This can be achieved through discerning their interests, conducting an interview, or requesting students to answer an open-ended questionnaire with main questions concerning their learning inclinations (contingent on the age group). This is core when scheming for activities requiring reduced structure. On the other hand, it is still crucial to establish styles of learning in addition to preferences for students who may perhaps have arduous time reining in their behaviors. Occasionally, distinguishing preferences can aid in motivating students to focus on any tasks that are rendered. It is the most commonly employed and most conventional teaching strategy. It is centered on the teacher and can be employed to encompass a large amount of material in the available time that the teachers are required what the students need to learn. It is centered on grouping of students corresponding to ability, background, difficulty etc. Nonetheless, one of the mainly crucial characteristics of cooperative learning is to single out the best strategy that will be employed to consign the task for students to complete. In a differentiated classroom, undertakings are customized to the needs of students concurring to the diverse ability levels, interests and backgrounds among others. Suitable activities compel the students to advance and apply knowledge in methods that make sense and that they find to appropriate and meaningful. Varying ways of
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Manufacturing and Service Technologies Essay Manufacturing and Service Technologies technology refers to the work processes, techniques, machines, and actions used to transform organizational inputs into outputs. One important theme in this chapter is how core technology influences organization structure. Understanding core technology provides insight into how an organization can be structured for efficient performance. Core technology is the work process that is directly related to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission. A non-core technology is a department work process that is important to the organization but is not directly related to its primary mission. Woodward developed a scale and organized the firms according to technical complexity of the manufacturing process. Technical complexity represents the extent of mechanization of the manufacturing process. High technical complexity means most of the work is performed by machines. WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s scale consists of ten categories and these categories were further consolidated into three basic technology groups: The groups are consisted of small-batch and unit production, large-batch and mass production, and continuous-process production. Small-batch production relies heavily on the human operator; it is thus not highly mechanized. The large-batch is manufacturing process characterized by long production runs of standardized parts. In continuous-process production, the entire process is mechanized. Overall, the management systems in both unit-production and continuous -process technology are characterized as organic, as defined in Chapter 4. Mass production, however, is mechanistic, with standardized jobs and formalized procedures. When adopting a new technology, realign strategy, structure, and management process to achieve top performance. Lean manufacturing uses highly trained employees at every stage of the production process, who take a painstaking approach to details and problem solving to cut waste and improve quality. Lean manufacturing techniques have been implemented in hundreds of organizations all over the world and have led to dramatic improvements in quality, productivity, and efficiency. Service technologies are different from manufacturing technologies and, in turn, require a different organization design. The most obvious difference is that service technology produces an intangible output, rather than a tangible product. Hence, service organizations may have an organization structure with fewer boundary roles, greater geo-graphical dispersion, decentralization, highly skilled employees in the technical core, and generally less control than in manufacturing organizations. The feature of service technologies with a distinct influence on organizational structure and control systems is the need for technical core employees to be close to the customer. The impact of customer contact on organization structure is reflected in the use of boundary roles and structural disaggregation. The text also introduces Non-Core Departmental technology, as the section that shifts to the department level of analysis for departments not necessarily within the technical core. The framework that has had the greatest impact on the understanding of departmental technologies was developed by Charles Perrow. Perrow specified two dimensions of departmental activities: Variety and Analyzability. Variety is the frequency of unexpected and novel events that occur in the conversion process. Analyzability is when the work can be reduced to the mechanical steps and participants can follow an objective, computational procedure to solve problems. The dimensions of variety and analyzability form the basis for four major categories of technology: routine, craft, engineering, and nonroutine. (Daft) The text discusses both core and non-core work processes and their relationship to designing organization structure. The nature of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s work processes must be considered in designing the organization for maximum efficiency and effectiveness. The text illustrates that forces affecting organization design come from both outside and inside the organization. External strategic needs create top-down pressure for designing the organization in such a way as to fit the environment and accomplish goals. This illustrates that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s companies is that strategy, structure, and technology need to be aligned, especially when competitive conditions change. For example, several years ago, Dell created a business model to uild personal computers faster and cheaper, other computer manufacturers had to realign strategy, structure, and technology to stay competitive. Dell made PCs to order for each customer and sold most of them directly to consumers without expense of distributers or retailers. IBM for example, tried to differentiate their products and charge a premium price switched to a low-cost strategy, adopted new technology to enable them to customize PCs, revamped supply chains, and began outsourcing manufacturing to other companies that could do the job more efficiently.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Phobias: Irrational Fear Fear of heights, fear of the number Ã¢â¬Å"13,Ã¢â¬ fear of spiders, fear of small spaces. All of these fears are considered phobias. While there are many causes of phobias, one theory uses the notion of preparedness in Pavlovian conditioning. This is a way in which people learn to react to certain stimuli. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Scientist and abehaviorist, Pavlov, first discovered this conditioning while experimenting with dogs. He could reliably predict that dogs would salivate when food was placed in the mouth through a reflex called the Ã¢â¬Å"salivary reflexÃ¢â¬ in digestion. Yet he soon realized that, after time, the salivary reflex occurred even before the food was offered. What Pavlov discovered was first order conditioning. In this process, a neutral stimulus that causes no natural response in an organism is associated with an unconditioned stimulus, an event that automatically or naturally causes a response. This usual association causes the response to the unconditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, to transfer to the neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus no longer needs to be there for the response to occur in the presence of the formerly neutral stimulus. Given that his response is not natural and has to be learned, the response is now a conditioned response and the neutral stimulus is now a conditioned stimulus. Hence, certain individuals are more equipped to learn some things easier than others are. This ability is known as preparedness. In PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s experiment the tone was the neutral stimulus that was associated with the unconditioned stimulus of food. The unconditioned response of salivation became a conditioned response to the newly conditioned stimulus of the tone. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Considering the two phobias: fear of the number Ã¢â¬Å"13Ã¢â¬ and fear of heights, the latter is most likely to have been produced by Pavlovian conditioning. This is due to the fact that more people are likely to have obtained preparedness to be afraid of this. There are numerous stories and movies that contribute to this irrational fear. Hence, people are more willing to accept the conditioning and become afraid of high places. This would not be hard to condition into anyone, since it is so commonly feared. Also, the fear of the number Ã¢â¬Å"13Ã¢â¬ is much more irrational than a fear of heights. Falling from a high place is much more likely than being injured by a number. Thus, preparedness and Pavlovian conditioning most likely caused a fear of heights. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In conclusion, phobias can occur through different causes, but Pavlov discovered one theory. Phobia :: essays research papers Phobias: Irrational Fear Fear of heights, fear of the number Ã¢â¬Å"13,Ã¢â¬ fear of spiders, fear of small spaces. All of these fears are considered phobias. While there are many causes of phobias, one theory uses the notion of preparedness in Pavlovian conditioning. This is a way in which people learn to react to certain stimuli. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Scientist and abehaviorist, Pavlov, first discovered this conditioning while experimenting with dogs. He could reliably predict that dogs would salivate when food was placed in the mouth through a reflex called the Ã¢â¬Å"salivary reflexÃ¢â¬ in digestion. Yet he soon realized that, after time, the salivary reflex occurred even before the food was offered. What Pavlov discovered was first order conditioning. In this process, a neutral stimulus that causes no natural response in an organism is associated with an unconditioned stimulus, an event that automatically or naturally causes a response. This usual association causes the response to the unconditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, to transfer to the neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus no longer needs to be there for the response to occur in the presence of the formerly neutral stimulus. Given that his response is not natural and has to be learned, the response is now a conditioned response and the neutral stimulus is now a conditioned stimulus. Hence, certain individuals are more equipped to learn some things easier than others are. This ability is known as preparedness. In PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s experiment the tone was the neutral stimulus that was associated with the unconditioned stimulus of food. The unconditioned response of salivation became a conditioned response to the newly conditioned stimulus of the tone. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Considering the two phobias: fear of the number Ã¢â¬Å"13Ã¢â¬ and fear of heights, the latter is most likely to have been produced by Pavlovian conditioning. This is due to the fact that more people are likely to have obtained preparedness to be afraid of this. There are numerous stories and movies that contribute to this irrational fear. Hence, people are more willing to accept the conditioning and become afraid of high places. This would not be hard to condition into anyone, since it is so commonly feared. Also, the fear of the number Ã¢â¬Å"13Ã¢â¬ is much more irrational than a fear of heights. Falling from a high place is much more likely than being injured by a number. Thus, preparedness and Pavlovian conditioning most likely caused a fear of heights. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In conclusion, phobias can occur through different causes, but Pavlov discovered one theory.